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吸油疏水型纤维增强淀粉基泡沫材料的研究
Study on Oil-absorbing Hydrophobic Fiber Reinforced Starch-Based Absorbent Materials
收稿日期:2021-06-04  
DOI:10.11980/j.issn.0254-508X.2021.12.007
关键词:  玉米淀粉  疏水改性  泡沫材料  针叶木纤维  吸附
Key Words:corn starch  hydrophobic modification  foam material  coniferous wood fiber  adsorption
基金项目:陕西省咸阳市科学技术研究计划项目(2017k02-25);大学生创新创业训练计划项目(S202110708107X)。
作者单位邮编
蔡雪 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
张煜昊 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
殷学风 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
王瑞晨 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
蔺家成 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
林涛 陕西科技大学轻工科学与工程学院陕西省造纸技术及特种纸品开发重点实验室 中国轻工业纸基功能材料重点实验室教育部轻化工助剂化学与技术重点实验室 轻化工程国家级实验教学示范中心陕西西安710021 710021
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摘要:采用玉米淀粉为原料,预处理后的针叶木纤维为增强体,制备了纤维增强型淀粉基泡沫材料。结果表明,在添加少量针叶木纤维后,淀粉基泡沫材料的力学性能及孔隙结构得到极大改善。当淀粉添加量4.5%,针叶木纤维添加量1.5%时,材料的压缩强度最大,达4.66 MPa,孔隙率为88%,密度为0.13 g/cm3。通过吸附表征发现,该材料主要以吸附水为主。通过酯化反应对玉米淀粉进行疏水改性,并以预处理后的针叶木纤维为增强体,制备了疏水改性的纤维增强型淀粉基泡沫材料。当盐酸用量相同,硬脂酸用量为6 g时,材料拉伸强度最大,达0.25 MPa;硬脂酸用量为4 g时,材料抗压强度最大,达4.76 MPa。疏水改性后材料的力学性能和疏水性能相对于未改性前均有所提高,同时也提高了其吸附的油水比,使材料具有一定的亲油性。
Abstract:In this study, fiber reinforced starch-based foam materials were prepared with corn starch as raw material and pretreated softwood fibers as reinforcement. The results showed that the mechanical properties and pore structure of starch-based foam materials were greatly improved after adding a small amount of softwood fibers. When the starch content was 4.5% and the softwood fibers content was 1.5%, the compressive strength of the material reached the maximum of 4.66 MPa. At this time, the porosity of the material was 88% and the density was 0.13 g/cm3. The adsorption results showed that the starch-based foam materials mainly absorbed water. Then, the corn starch was hydrophobic modified by esterification, and the fiber reinforced starch-based foam materials with hydrophobic modification were prepared with softwood fibers as reinforcement. When the dosage of hydrochloric acid was same, the dosage of stearic acid was 6 g, the tensile strength reached the maximum of 0.25 MPa. When the dosage of stearic acid was 4 g, the compressive strength reached the maximum of 4.76 MPa. Thus, compared to the materials before modification, both the mechanical properties and hydrophobicity of hydrophobic modified materials were improved. The oil-water ratio of adsorption was also improved, so that the materials had a certain lipophilicity.
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